Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Marketing and Long I. Hazel free essay sample

In what ways are Hazel’s clients well on the way to pass judgment on the nature of her grass care administrations? - Though Hazel is new on cutting yards, she had great notorieties that pull in numerous neighbors to change to her. 2. Hazel is the activities supervisor of her business. Among her obligations are estimating, stock administration, planning, quality affirmation, and upkeep. a. What sorts of things would probably require gauges? - Thing that requires guaging is when will the gardens develop tall once more. . What stock things does Hazel most likely have? Name one stock choices she needs to make occasionally. - She should have garden trimmer, is a sort of machine that used to cut yards. This machine is urgent to her business since this is the most utilized in her business. c. What booking must she do? What things may happen disturb timetables and cause Hazel to reschedule? - I recommend that booking must done day before the administration, to stay away from abrogation of calendar or any disturbance. We will compose a custom exposition test on Promoting and Long I. Hazel or then again any comparable point explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page Long time reservation may cause interruption in light of the fact that the clients won’t recognize what will occur in future. For instance, I planned it on next 3 weeks, out of nowhere we are away it might cause crossing out of the administration. d. How significance is quality affirmation to Hazel’s business? Clarify. - Since Hazel is new to cutting yards, she should have the option to make sure about quality for neighbors for her clients will remain and request her administration next time. e. What sort of support must be performed? Hazel must ready to disclose to the clients when is her next help and when will the administration be finished. 3. What are a portion of the exchange offs that Hazel most likely thought to be comparative with: - If I were Hazel I would be presumably be focusing on extending the business, since after the main year of business the business is working out positively, I would presumably consider new techniques in growing the business. Propelling a site will help likewise, since web showcasing is one of the significant advertising procedure now a days it will presumably help extending the business. 4.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Management Information System Implementation Challenges

Question: Portray about the Management Information System Implementation Challenges ? Answer: Advancement Of Organization Data: Coordinated effort of inquiries with investigation: to get the benefit utilizing information examination, it is the best approach to figure the inquiries which can be replied by the investigation. This should be possible by a solid interdisciplinary group who can assess the business and casing the hard inquiries to reply. Rather than existing reports new reports ought to be made to dissect the data in the various manners. These assistance to make rivalry. Plan: IT asset utilization and working strategies must be altered with the end goal that online exchange preparing and continuous clump handling run at high need. Ability to plan: it is a major issue for the associations provided that the inquiries being posed are not realized at that point there is no hope with the business investigation. Reconsider activities: Workflows ought to be reexamined in the operational zones to exploit. Great feeling of business is made by taking points of interest of the sellers practice. There are two degrees of the capacity of business investigation: it gives the outline of action and speak to the drill down movement. Information cleaning must be done before the execution of the methodology. MIS Advantages: Solid and auspicious data is fundamental for taking sound choices. MIS is the organized technique for gathering and handling data for the leaders. The capacity, execution and the profitability of an association is enormously influenced by the MIS. A decent administration offers help for the promoting, money and creation. Practical targets can be followed and checked effectively with its assistance. It keeps the supervisor mindful about the patterns in the market by giving adequate data. Organized database and information base of the individuals is made. It helps in making long haul arranging. It spares the significant time of the administrator. Business understanding and the administrative productivity improved. Along these lines, there is a need to actualize an arrangement for the MIS joining to accomplish the benefits and targets and to build the effectiveness and efficiency. Terrible mis impacts: A terrible MIS makes obstructions in two different ways. First obstruction is at the key level, which remembers the disappointment of leaders for the minimization of correspondence hindrances. Second obstruction is in regards to the unavailabilty of the area correspondence or the practical combination. Poor progression of data framework prompts process obstructions. Procedure boundaries incorporate poor handiness of offices, inaccessible impact on worker efficiency and administration and increment in the expense of responsibility for data innovation. Market Trends In Toy Making: Toy patterns of 2015 by the toy business affiliation are as per the following: Development of creator: it permits to make interesting things for the kids.llion. Open-finished recess: inventiveness, cleverness and critical thinking abilities of the kida are advanced with the assistance of these games. Smaller than normal franticness: this incorporates the little form of the restrictive existing items. Savvy play: instructive and scholastically engaged toys are developing in the market. Under the ocean: this incorporates water mess around. Top in contact: kids are pulled in by the toys made by the top innovation. Most recent deal in the toy showcase in the U.S was $18.11billion. References: Kornkaew, A. (2012) Management Information System Implementation Challenges. Achievement Key Issues, Effects and Consequences Sakthivel, S. (2014) ROLE IMPACT AND IMPORTANCE OF MIS. effect and-significance of-mis Alvarez, S, J. Difficulties to data framework usage. Toys Market Research Business Solutions. (2013) .

Friday, August 21, 2020

Reseach methods Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Reseach techniques - Essay Example The impact of this is the focal point of the examination moves from hypothesis to information. The deductive methodology is likewise an enlightening methodology in that it portrays realities and shows hypotheses. Deductive research is frequently applied to surveys and the assortment of quantitative information which tends to the theory. There are a few points of interest to deductive thinking. It is a moderately essentially inquire about technique to normalize, as it is an exceptionally organized methodology dependent on logical standards. Moreover the organized methodology implies that the analyst doesn't really should be profoundly learned about the exploration subject. Most directors know about the deductive methodology and in this manner are considerably more liable to place confidence in ends that are made utilizing it. Also it is a speedy strategy for picking up information, as the tedious parts of this kind of research are for the most part in the set-up and information assortment stages. This additionally implies the measure of time expected to put resources into the examination can be planned and anticipated generally without any problem. These things make deductive research generally safe in contrast with inductive research. There are additionally various worries with this methodology. Right off the bat it is significant that causal connections between all factors in the exploration are clarified and characterized. Choosing tests of adequate size is a vital factor in deciding the achievement of this sort of research. The example must be sufficiently enormous to produce exact ends that are dependable in all utilizations of the information. A noteworthy issue with deductive research is in unmistakably characterizing dynamic ideas. Taking the case of representative resolve, it must be characterized as far as level of fulfillment of workers, which is an individual idea and may mean various things to various individuals. Directing this kind of research implies that ideas must be plainly characterized to empower exact reactions from inquire about subjects. In conclusion, controls must be applied to guarantee the legitimacy of the information picked up from the examination. In the event that the exploration was in characterizing levels of representative fulfillment in a specific division, purposes behind high or low worker moral must be built up. For instance, the information taken from representatives may show a connection among remaining task at hand and worker compensation. This information would then be able to be utilized to refine the speculation of a connection between outstanding task at hand, representative pay, and assurance, and afterward gather new information for examination. This may incorporate contribution from various offices, both to expand test size and to take note of the impacts of shifting remaining burdens or compensations in various divisions. This guarantees the precision of the theory since it considers variety of these angles in various divisions. A bigger example size permits further refinement of the speculation - for instance it might limit the theory to concentrate on youthful representatives, and permit the analyst to pinpoint various impacts of low or high assurance, for example, non-attendance. Thusly, an underlying speculation concentrating basically on representative spirit can be logically refined to pinpoint causal connections that become obvious as the focal point of the examination limits. One of the fundamental detriments of this sort of research is that it depends on subjects to fill and return polls, which may turn out to be progressively hard to do as test size

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Reader Essay - 882 Words

Memory is a powerful concept. Often when an individual undergoes a traumatic situation, the ramifications of these actions seep into an individual?fs psyche unknowingly. In effect this passes through memory and becomes sub-consciously buried within a person?fs behavioural patterns generally. The Reader by Bernhard Schlink explores the concept of a young mans subconscious desire for a woman whom he ?gcan?ft remember to forget?h (1Memento) as she is so deeply inlaid within his soul. Critically acclaimed as ?gA formally beautiful, disturbing, and finally morally devastating novel. From the first page?c [it] ensnares both heart and mind?h ( Los Angeles Times), the novel tells the story of a young boy, 15, Michael Berg, through his own†¦show more content†¦In the unconscious state, dreams are the purest form of truth into a person?fs subconscious. In Michael?fs dreams he physically yearns for Hanna?fs presence. ?gIt took a while before my body stopped yearning for hers; sometimes I myself was aware of my arms and legs groping for her in my sleep, and my brother reported more than once at table that I called out ?eHanna?f in the night?h (p 85). The helpless nature of Michaels actions show how much Hanna has affected his subconscious and although he is made aware of his actions, his physical dependence comes from the deep scaring within him. On another occasion, after Hanna?fs death, it is documented that Michael once again subconsciously desires her presence. Michael dreams of Hanna while travelling through the countryside to bid Hanna?fs final wishes. ?gI dreamed of Hanna and myself in a house in the autumn-blazed hills that were lining our route. Hanna was older than when I had met her and younger than when I had met her again, older than me, more attractive than in earlier years, more relaxed in her movements with age, more at home in her own body. I saw her getting out of the car and picking up shopping bags, saw her going through the garden into the house, saw her set down theShow MoreRelatedThe Reader Essay892 Words   |  4 Pagesindividual undergoes a traumatic situation, the ramifications of these actions seep into an individual fs psyche unknowingly. In effect this passes through memory and becomes sub-consciously buried within a person fs behavioural patterns generally. The Reader by Bernhard Schlink explores the concept of a young mans subconscious desire for a woman whom he  gcan ft remember to forget h (1Memento) as she is so deeply inlaid within his soul. Critically acclaimed as  gA formally beautiful, disturbing, andRead MoreEssay on A Kinder Reader1733 Words   |  7 PagesA Kinder Reader When one thinks of stories that improve us as human beings, Aesop’s Fables comes to mind, not the dark, dank, heroin#8209;laced world of Mohsin Hamid’s Moth Smoke. But, reading is like fashion, and one man’s cherished plaid pants are another man’s horror. Not all fiction can directly dole out moral advice, such as Jane Austen’s warnings about the dangers of hasty judgment in Pride and Prejudice, but almost all fiction can proffer tales that at the very least expand our rangeRead MoreControlled Reader Essay1569 Words   |  7 Pagesto elicit a desired response from the reader, for there are two types of readers an author must consider: the implied reader and the actual reader. The implied reader is â€Å"assumed and created by the work itself† whereas, the actual reader brings his/her own experiences to the text and thus each reader takes away a different message from a text (MacMannus, para 1). Du Boiss narrative, â€Å"A Mild Suggestionà ¢â‚¬ , attempts to ensure a certain response, from the reader, by including a description of the passengersRead MoreThe Reader and Writer Essay641 Words   |  3 Pagesgreatly benefit by a shared garden. The proposal contains 3 images of which all support the writer’s philosophy. Commonly, all are directed to the reader through techniques of fear tactics and consistent use of hyperbole. The newsletter aims to persuade readers through tactics of: appealing to sense of security, use of evidence and involvement of readers through inclusive language. The writer begins with the second word ‘our’ to immediately create a sense of belonging. This benevolent attitudeRead MoreGood Readers Good Writers1199 Words   |  5 PagesNabokov: Providing a Flood and Lifeboat In Nabokov’s 1948 â€Å"Good Readers and Good Writers,† the reader has the opportunity to view the possibilities of a beautiful collision of a major reader and a major writer. This piece discusses reading and writing: skills that have become standardized and slightly devalued as education has advanced. Literacy has become so expected that little thought is put into what defines a good reader or writer; Nabokov tackles this idea head on. Nabokov’s intentionRead MoreEffectiveness Of Stylistics On The Reader. Stylistics Are1527 Words   |  7 PagesEffectiveness of Stylistics on the Reader Stylistics are used in writing to set various pieces of literature apart, while also determining the effectiveness said literature has on the reader. The novels Such is My Beloved and By Grand Central Station I Sat Down and Wept both involve the concepts of sex and religion, but are each enjoyed by different groups of readers, Factors that highlight these differences include the point of view which story is told from, the word choice by the author, and theRead MoreAnalysis Of Bernhard Schlink s The Reader 989 Words   |  4 PagesIn Bernhard Schlink’s philosophical novel, The Reader, the attempt to separate the past events from the future is contrasted with the intertwined nature of the past and future. The book investigates whether one should acknowledge and accept one’s history or whether one should consign a negative past to oblivion to begin a new future. Schlink explores this through characterization, symbolism and structure. The myriad of symbolic imagery in The Reader explores the connections between the past andRead MoreThe Writer s Credibility And The Reader s Efficiency853 Words   |  4 Pagesreadability and understandability of the readers, as well as maintaining the purpose of the text. Editors suggest appropriate changes according to what the writer wants to accomplish and the intended audience –which determines the content, organization and tone. Thus, the end result of substantive editing is a balance between the writer’s intentions with the reader’s expectations which in turn serves the text reliable, accurate and hopefully, useful. Readers respect authors when there is no faultyRead More German Guilt in Bernhard Schlinks The Reader Essay1542 Words   |  7 Pagesregards to passion, denial, guilt, and finally justice? Absolutely, according to Michael Berg, the main character in Bernhard Schlink?s novel, The Reader. After being hypnotized for two days while I read this very interesting story, I would have to agree. Once I saw the startling similarities in the area of seduction, the door opened for me to see what I believe Schlink was trying to show all alongRead MoreHooking the Reader in Ian McEwans Enduring Love Essay994 Words   |  4 PagesThe beginning is simple to mark. This is the opening sentence of Ian McEwans novel Enduring Love, and in this first sentence, the reader is unwittingly drawn into the novel. An introduction like this poses the question, the beginning of what? Gaining the readers curiosity and forcing them to read on. The very word beginning allows us an insight into the importance of this event, for the narrator must have analysed it many a time in order to find the moment in which it all began, and so

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The Benefits Of Exercises Or Physical Activity In Risk Reduction

Question: Discuss about the Benefits Of Exercises Or Physical Activity In Risk Reduction Of Dementia In Australia. Answer: Introduction Dementia is a chronic medical condition of the mental process that results due to an illness or injury to the brain and characterized by memory loss, changes in behavior as well as impairing cognitive functions. The majority of dementia is as a result of the Alzheimers disease and vascular disorders. The decline in these mental abilities leads to interference with the daily activities of the patient. Various studies show that there is an increase in the percentage of individuals with dementia in Australia. Research indicates that close to 298,000 persons in Australia have dementia and the estimated number is 400000 by the year 2020 (Dawson, Bowes, Kelly, Velzke, Ward, 2015). Dementia accounts for about six percent of the deaths in Australia. The prevalence of dementia in Australia is mostly among the old population. Some statistics indicate that 62% of the cases of dementia are women and that 75% of the people with dementia are of the age of 75 years and above. Records indicate that close to 25 people die every day due to dementia (Louise, Mestre, 2017). The most venerable population is said to be persons above the age of sixty-five years (Larson, Wang, Bowen, McCormick, Crane Kukull, 2006 p71). Lack of physical exercise due to the change in lifestyle is attributed to the increase in cases of dementia in the aging Australian population. There are various measures to counter widespread dementia in Australia (SmithAli Quach, 2014 p661). These efforts include physical activities and exercise as well as various medications. However, exercise has been found to be more beneficial to persons with dementia since the available pharmacological interventions have been found to have less impact. It has been discovered that exercise is medicine hence the physical exercise is an efficient non-pharmacological option. The aim of this assignment on literature review is to explore the benefits of exercise and physical activity in the reduction of dementia among the elderly per sons in Australia. Dementia Risk and Prevention There are risk factors for dementia that cannot be altered which include genetics and age. However, research shows that there is continued efforts to explore the benefits of other risk factors especially on brain health as well as the prevention of dementia. The research on risk prevention and the prevention deals with various areas which include physical fitness through physical activity, cardiovascular factors, and diet (Smith, Ali Quach, 2014 p661). However, in this study only literature dealing with the benefits of exercises and other physical activities in risk reduction of dementia will be reviewed. Search Strategy Various search strategies were applied to find the relevant information concerning this research. Grey Literature together with the Google Scholar was used to come up with different articles, journal, periodicals, books and other peer reviewed written materials on the benefits of exercise among the elderly population in Australia in the reduction of risk of dementia. These articles range from Ageing and Society,' Senior Citizens, Dementia as well as Journal of Ageing and Health. Government sources were included since they contain the efforts that the Australian government has put to encourage the elderly participate in the physical activity to come up with the dementia-free elderly population. Different books and materials were also used to analyze various studies done on the current trends in physical activity and reduction of risk of dementia. These books were obtained from databases which include Pubmed,' Medline.' Proquest and Informit.' Various elderly persons were also consulte d for them to explain the benefits of exercises in their quest to reduce the effects of dementia in their old age. The important words that were used to search for the online articles and also journals are dementia, decreased cognitive functions in patients with dementia in Australia, memory loss in Australia, the relationship between ageing and dementia, the relationship between the lack of physical activities and dementia, elderly people and dementia, dementia in old age nursing facilities and the factors that contribute to Dementia in Australia (Smith et al. 2014 p661). The search timeframe was twelve weeks to enable extensive research and data analysis. The findings of this study were grouped thematically and content analysis according to braun Clarke 2006. The specific themes were chosen after thorough research, reading various research articles and consolidating the information in narrowed topics. The most important benefits of exercise and physical activity in the risk reduction among the aging Australian population were found to be an improvement of mental and physical characteristics, s ocial advantages, improved cognitive functions, health benefits and preservation of quality of life. Findings A total of twenty books, journals, articles, periodicals and other peer-reviewed materials were initially considered for this research. The main focus while searching for these articles was to find peer reviewed articles that contained relevant and valid information on the various benefits on exercise and physical activity in the risk reduction of dementia in Australia. However, while analysing the acquired articles, it was found that four of them contained either irrelevant information while other had outdated information. Most of the articles that were used were those from the Google Scholar since they had relevant peer reviewed information. Grey literature was used as different government journals and departmental reports in Australia were consulted. Group Findings Exercise leads to Improved Physical Capacity and Health Ohman et al. states that people who are involved in physical activities have resulted in improvement of physical and mental health. Physical activity helps in reducing physical decline among individuals with dementia or at the risk of acquiring dementia. Through the combined aerobic and strength training programs, the elderly people can preserve their physical characteristics. Regular exercising has been found to have improved mental health and reduction of other health problems that face persons with dementia. Physical exercise reduces the risk of cardiovascular and respiratory problems that usually face the elderly population hence decreasing the effects of dementia (hman, Savikko, Strandberg, Kautiainen, Raivio Laakkonen, 2014 p348). Persons with dementia involvement in various physical activities results into improvement mental health as exercises increase oxygen and blood flow to the brain cell hence directly benefiting the brain which leads to the reduction of risk of dementia . Physical Activity Reduces Social problems that lead to Dementia. Through participating in various exercises and physical activities, persons with the risk of suffering from dementia can meet other individuals with similar problems. These interactions help in reduction of different social problems. The danger of feeling the loneliness that could lead to harming themselves is reduced since the harm could be to the brain. These physical activities among the aging population keep them engaged in social activities and enables them to be busy. The elderly persons at the risk of dementia, therefore, are involved in various activities hence reducing the time they may have to harm themselves since these individuals have mental impairments which could lead them to different action that could harm them including suicidal thoughts. Reduction of social problems results decreased the occurrence of diseases like Alzheimers disease which contributes to the development of dementia (Ervin, Pallant, Terry, Bourke, Pierce Glenister, 2015 p258) Exercise helps in Preservation of Quality of life Studies by Louise and Mestre reveal that persons who have dementia face numerous challenges that reduce the quality of their lives. These problems include reduced cognitive functions, the presence of pain that leads to sleeping disorders among the persons who have dementia, and also the loss of motor skills and balance which increases the risk of falling among the elderly generation suffering from dementia. Research indicates that daily involvement in exercise and other physical activities leads to the reduction of the problems that face the elderly persons who have dementia. Therefore, exercises should be included in the day-to-day operations of individuals aged sixty years and above (Louise, Mestre, 2017). Physical Activity has led to Australian Government involvement in Management of Dementia hence Risk Reduction of Dementia Due to the need for physical activity in risk reduction of dementia in Australia, the government of Australia has come up with various policies and procedures to enhance and promote exercises and other physical activities required in risk reduction (Travers, Lie, Martin-Khan, 2015 p67). The government involvement in the promotion of physical activity to reduce the risk is through the increase in the number of care homes for the elderly individuals so that their management can be performed by professionals who have vast knowledge and skills on physical activity and the benefits it has in the reduction of the risk of acquiring dementia. The government has increased the number of caregivers who enhances the physical activity in these care homes to enable risk reduction of dementia among the elderly population in Australia. Research indicates that the Australian government offers funding to facilitate exercises and physical activities. The government of Australia has introduced programs to overcome dementia by providing improved health care facilities to the aged through finances, homes for the elderly, and trained personnel to keep the old people healthy (Brett, Traynor Stapley, 2016 p104). The involvement of the Australian government in the promotion of physical activity among the elderly suffering from dementia has resulted in improvement of the health sector. Physical Activity importance in the Maintenance of Cognitive Functions Glynn et al. states that the drug treatment for the management of dementia hove limited effects and therefore, the primary support offered to persons with dementia and their families since the disease has a genetic origin, is usually services only that help mitigate against the loss of function. Exercise is one of these services, and it helps in the maintaining cognitive functions. Research by Glynn et al. indicates that active seniors show less decline in cognitive functions than those who are active (Glynn, Dolan, Shelley Lawlor, 2016 p1006). Experiments show that exercises reduce the rate of cognitive functions hence should be employed to monitor and manage cognitive duties of the older generation to decrease the risk of dementia in Australia. Physical activity enhances vascular changes in the brain through the maintenance of cerebral blood flow and assist in the growth of new neurons or even relieving stress on the existing neurons leading to improved cognitive functions. Regular exercises reduce the vascular disorders hence lessen the risk of dementia hence preserving and maintaining the higher cognitive functions (Almeida, Khan, Hankey, Yeap, Golledge Flicker, 2014 p 223) Physical Activity helps Patient Connect with the Environment and Community Most of the physical activities and exercises are outdoor tasks. These includes walks, hikes, running and other events that help to keep fit. For instance, walking outdoor as a form of exercise in a certain community helps in the re-establishment of a link or connection with the surrounding environment and nature. This connection is necessary since the population that suffers from dementia in Australia is that of the elderly individuals who usually stay at home or the nursing care centers. This connection helps in stress reduction and the feeling of wellbeing which are essential for the mitigation of the adverse effects of dementia (Wells, Evans Cheek, 2016 p203) Mechanisms of Action of the Physical Activity and Dementia Larson et al. indicates that on the vascular system, various physical activities and exercises restore cerebral hypo-perfusion hence increasing the blood flow to the brain which reduces the effects of dementia on the brain (Larson et al. 2006 p77). Exercises and physical activities enhance the neurochemical pathways to increase serotonin and endorphin levels in the brain which consequently elevates the functioning of the central nervous system, therefore, enhancing cognitive performance (Jack, 2017 p109). On cognitive reserve, there is the reduction of cognitive deficits which is achieved through the activation of brain plasticity, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis enhancement. Physical activity helps in stress reduction as it enhances the development of positive emotional feelings hence reducing stress and leading to lower susceptibility to the cognitive deficiency. Exercise restores functions and capabilities through the facilitation of attainment of memory and learning (Deckers et al. 2015 p 237) Conclusion Studies done by the Alzheimers Association have shown that persons who are physically active and engages in daily exercises have a higher chance of surviving the numerous factors that lead to dementia. Physical activity helps in the reduction of Alzheimers disease and vascular disorders that lead to dementia (Alzheimer's Association, 2017 p337). The old generation in which dementia is more common need to get involved in daily exercises and physical activities since they have beneficial importance on the reduction of dementia and also reduces the symptoms experienced by patients with dementia. Physical activity leads to increased physical capacity as well as improved health status of individuals with dementia. The quality of life is preserved through exercises and physical activity since it helps the individuals be able to carry out their daily activities like before (Langlois, Vu, Chass, Dupuis, Kergoat Bherer, 2013 p 403). Research indicates that physical activity helps in the redu ction of social problems associated with dementia and old age since these activities enhance social interaction. Physical activity helps in the improvement of cognitive functions among persons with dementia. Exercises and various physical activities enable the patient to connect with the environment and the community. The review that was made has proven all these benefits of physical activity and exercises in risk reduction of dementia in Australia. References Ahlskog, J.E., Geda, Y.E., Graff-Radford, N.R. and Petersen, R.C., 2011, September. Physical exercise as a preventive or disease-modifying treatment of dementia and brain aging. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 86, No. 9, pp. 876-884). Elsevier. Almeida, O.P., Khan, K.M., Hankey, G.J., Yeap, B.B., Golledge, J. and Flicker, L., 2014. 150 minutes of vigorous physical activity per week predicts survival and successful ageing: a population-based 11-year longitudinal study of 12 201 older Australian men. British journal of sports medicine, 48(3), pp.220-225. Alzheimer's Association, 2017. 2017 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. Alzheimer's Dementia, 13(4), pp.325-373. Brett, L., Traynor, V. and Stapley, P., 2016. Effects of physical exercise on health and well-being of individuals living with a dementia in nursing homes: A systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 17(2), pp.104-116. Dawson, A., Bowes, A., Kelly, F., Velzke, K., Ward, R. (2015). Evidence of what works to support and sustain care at home for people with dementia: a literature review with a systematic approach. BMC Geriatrics, 15(1). Deckers, K., Boxtel, M.P., Schiepers, O.J., Vugt, M., Muoz Snchez, J.L., Anstey, K.J., Brayne, C., Dartigues, J.F., Engedal, K., Kivipelto, M. and Ritchie, K., 2015. Target risk factors for dementia prevention: a systematic review and Delphi consensus study on the evidence from observational studies. International journal of geriatric psychiatry, 30(3), pp.234-246. Ervin, K., Pallant, J., Terry, D.R., Bourke, L., Pierce, D. and Glenister, K., 2015. A Descriptive Study of Health, Lifestyle and Sociodemographic Characteristics and their Relationship to Known Dementia Risk Factors in Rural Victorian Communities. AIMS Med Sci, 2, pp.246-260. Glynn, R.W., Dolan, C., Shelley, E. and Lawlor, B., 2016. Evidence-based prevention and treatment of dementia. The Lancet Neurology, 15(10), p.1006. Jack, C., 2017. Are Major Dementias Triggered by Poor Blood Flow to the Brain? Theoretical Considerations. brain, 12(15), p.109. Langlois, F., Vu, T.T.M., Chass, K., Dupuis, G., Kergoat, M.J. and Bherer, L., 2013. Benefits of physical exercise training on cognition and quality of life in frail older adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 68(3), pp.400-404. Larson, E.B., Wang, L., Bowen, J.D., McCormick, W.C., Teri, L., Crane, P. and Kukull, W., 2006. Exercise is associated with reduced risk for incident dementia among persons 65 years of age and older. Annals of internal medicine, 144(2), pp.73-81. Louise, C., Mestre, L. (2017). Off-Label Prescribing of Antipsychotics in Adults, Children and E...: Ingenta Connect. Retrieved 3 May 2017, from hman, H., Savikko, N., Strandberg, T.E. and Pitkl, K.H., 2014. Effect of physical exercise on cognitive performance in older adults with mild cognitive impairment or dementia: a systematic review. Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders, 38(5-6), pp.347-365. Smith, B.J., Ali, S. and Quach, H., 2014. Public knowledge and beliefs about dementia risk reduction: a national survey of Australians. BMC Public Health, 14(1), p.661. Travers, C., Lie, D. and Martin-Khan, M., 2015. Dementia and the population health approach: promise, pitfalls and progress. An Australian perspective. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, 25(01), pp.60-71. Wells, N.M., Evans, G.W. and Cheek, K.A., 2016. Environmental psychology. Environmental Health: From Global to Local, p.203.

Saturday, April 18, 2020

Sam Walton One of Uss All Time Great Leaders Essay Example

Sam Walton One of Uss All Time Great Leaders Paper Sam Walton, One of US’s All Time Great Leaders Sam Walton was born on March 29, 1918 to Thomas and Nancy Walton on a farm in Oklahoma. In 1923, after realizing the farm would no longer be able to support the family, Thomas Walton decided to go back to his previous profession of appraising farm loans and relocated the family to Missouri. Due to the nature of Thomas Walton’s profession the family was continuously moving. The constant moving allowed Sam Wlaton, the eldest son to become a survivor and gain a great passion for learning and adapting that ultimately facilitated the path towards becoming one of the richest and most successful leaders in the United States. Throughout his life, Sam Walton exhibited qualities that could be categorized under the trait approach theory. The trait approach theory states that leaders are individuals who are always out front and leading the way in the society and are gifted people who can do extraordinary things by possessing the following traits: intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity and sociability (Northouse, p. 19, 25). It is quiet apparent to see through Sam Walton’s accomplishment that he possessed all of these traits. Since Sam Walton was a young boy, he had what it took to get a head, get things done and make money. During the depression at an early age of seven Sam Walton helped to provide for his family by milking the cows and delivering magazines. We will write a custom essay sample on Sam Walton One of Uss All Time Great Leaders specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Sam Walton One of Uss All Time Great Leaders specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Sam Walton One of Uss All Time Great Leaders specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer At the age of 13, Sam Walton had become the youngest boy in the state of Missouri to become an Eagle Scout. Although, Sam Walton was not seen as one of the smartest kids in his class, his dedication and hard work eventually placed him in the ranks of the honor students. Sam Walton went to Hickman High School in Columbia, where he played basketball and lead the football team to the state title in 1935 as the starting quarterback. Sam Walton showed leadership potential early on by serving as Vice-President of his junior class and the President of his senior class. Unlike the other kids, besides school, Sam Walton had other responsibilities. He continued to work in order to help support his family. By the the time he graduated high school, he was voted the ‘most versatile boy’ in his class. Sam Walton got his BA in Economics from the University of Missouri, all the while working by waiting tables, serving as a life guard and delivering newspapers. After graduating in 1940, Sam Walton entered his first retail job at JC Penny’s in Des Moines, Iowa as a management trainee making $75 a month. In 1942, Sam Walton joined the Army for World War II, where he became the captain of the U. S. Army Intelligence Corps. While waiting to be inducted into the military, Sam Walton met his future wife to be, Helen Robson in 1945. Robson’s father was a successful banker and rancher who helped Sam Walton in starting his first retail business. Mr. Robson lent Walton $20,000. With the help of his father-in-law, Sam Walton was able to open his first Butler Brothers franchise as a variety store that became one of the highest sales and profit stores in the six-state region. According to Northouse, when he states in his book, Leadership Theory and Practice, â€Å"although it is good to be bright, the research indicates that a leader’s intellectual ability should not differ too much from that of the subordinates† (Northouse, P. 20). Sam Walton had the ability to relate, work and learn from his employees, as well as his competitors (Huey, P. 22, 23). Walton learned from just about every person he came in contact with. He said, â€Å"Great ideas come from everywhere if you just listen and look for them. You never know who’s going to have a great idea† (Huey, P. 211). To show his sociability, according to Lee Scott the former CEO of Wal-Mart, Walton would show up in the drivers’ break room at 4 AM with donuts and just sit there and talk to them for hours. Walton was amazed at how many ideas they always had in fine tuning the system. He would drill them by asking, â€Å"What they saw? How people were acting in the stores? Had they been to a certain store lately? And were things getting better? † (Huey, P. 212) According to Katz, effective leadership depends on three basic personal skills: technical, human and conceptual. Katz argues that these three skills are very different than the traits of leaders. He state that skills are what leaders can do and traits are qualities that made the leader who they are (Northouse, P. 40). Sam Walton was one who possessed all of the three skills, some better than others. Walton’s conceptual skills gave him the ability to bring new ideas and introduced services never provided by other retailers. His brilliant idea of providing a variety of goods for low prices under one roof has been the best idea anyone had ever thought of. The idea of making his stores centrally located, so customers were able to easily access the stores and having later store hours, especially during Christmass, gave the Walton stores an edge over his competitors. Sam Walton’s conceptual skills gave him the ability to create a vision and strategically place the proper steps and people needed to make that vision into reality. Sam Walton experimented with discount merchandising, where he bought directly from the wholesalers by cutting out the middle men in order to bring the lower cost to his customers, therefore, giving him the ability to sell a great number of goods resulting in high sale volume and more profits. One of the keys to Sam Walton’s success as a leader was his human skills. Katz defines human skills as having the ability to assist group members in working cooperatively as a group to achieve the common goals of the organization (Northouse, P. 41). While in college, he wanted to become the student body president. In order to win and make sure everyone knew him on campus, Walton would speak to anyone and everyone who was walking down the sidewalk. He would always look ahead and spoke to the individuals walking toward him and would start speaking to them, even if he didn’t know them. If he knew them, he would always address them by their name, thus making sure everyone recognized him and considered him their friend (Huey, P. 15). To keep management motivated and performing at their best, Walton offered his managers limited partnership and allowed them to invest in the store they were managing. This kept the managers personally vested in the business and motivated them in keeping the profits to a maximum in order to insure the success of the store. Walton also, made sure each customer was greeted at the door and set up his stores conveying the hometown identity. Each store honored a local graduating senior with a college scholarship and held bake sales to raise money for local charities. Although, Sam Walton possessed many great qualities as a leader, his technical skills fell short in some areas. According to him, he â€Å"never learned hand writing all that well. † (Huey, P. 16) Nobody could read his hand writing. He wasn’t very proficient in keeping accurate details, like sales slips and cash register transactions. Walton was known to be so disorganized that his manager at his first job in Penney’s stated, â€Å"Walton, I’d fire you if you weren’t such a good salesman. Maybe you’re just not cut out for retail† (Huey, P. 17, 18). Walton would schedule appointments and forget he ever made the appointments. He would constantly miss meetings because he simply would forget to make a note of the appointments. In analyzing Sam Walton’s leadership style, the style approach is very different than the trait and skills approaches due to the fact that the style approach focuses on what leaders do rather than who they are (Northouse, P. 86). The â€Å"style approach suggests that leaders engage in two primary types of behaviors: task behaviors and relationship behaviors, [and] how leaders combine these two types of behaviors to influence others is the central focus of the style approach† (Northouse, P. 86). One of the things that made Walton a task oriented leader was his meticulousness on having the store shelves stacked properly. He was adamant on having the stores clean, and well lit. He would personally visit every store to make sure the stores were setup in the best way. Along with being task oriented, Walton focused greatly on his relationship behavior with his subordinates. He would say, â€Å"Visiting the stores and listening to our folks was one of the most valuable uses of my time as an executive. But really, our best ideas do come from the folks in the stores. Period. † (Huey, P. 230) Walton firmly believed in crediting when credit was due. He was known for giving recognition for the success of Wal-Mart to the associates and made sure information about the company’s goals and objectives were shared throughout the organization. It was obvious that Sam Walton loved to be in the retail business. But what he said he most enjoyed about retailing was seeing people achieve more than he. He used to say: Listen to your people and respond to their needs. Recruit employees who have the capacity to replace you. Allow people to think and try new things. And create an environment that allows your staff to comfortably disagree with you. By allowing this type of atmosphere, as a great leader, one would enable people to provide the best route in meeting the organizational goals and objectives, as well as making you a great leader. Sam Walton’s leadership was most popular amongst his followers (associates, employees). The basic concept he followed and believed in was that â€Å"individuals don’t win, teams do. Sam Walton was presented the Medal of Freedom Award just a few weeks before his death by George W. Bush, â€Å"Then nations highest reward to be awarded to a civilian† (Wal-Mart Page). The presidential citation read: An American original, Sam Walton embodies the entrepreneurial spirit and epitomizes the American dream. Concern for his employees, a c ommitment to his community and a desire to make a difference have been the hallmarks of his career. By sponsoring scholarships for Latin America, he has also worked to bring peoples closer together and to share with others the American ideals he so well represents. A devoted family man, business leader, and statesman for democracy, Sam Walton demonstrates the virtues of faith, hope, and hard work. America honors this captain of commerce, as successful in life as in business(Wal-Mart Page). One of the things Walton focused on was having engaged followers, a concept that has become very popular in recent years. Although, we are currently looking to discover different ways of keeping followers engages, Walton’s way was through profit sharing, by making his managers part owners in his stores, as well as by keeping every person in the organization informed of all its activities and seeking feedback. Sam Walton believed that a happy employee meant happy customers and more sales. And by giving employees part of the company and making the employees success dependent on the company’s success, everyone would be a winner. Although Sam Walton was known as one of the most successful retailers and leaders, he had many critics. Walton was criticized for making Wal-Mart a virtual monopoly in the retailing industry. Where by his organization forced many local small businesses to close down. Some critics say that the expansion of the Wal-Mart stores brought down employee wages and working standards in the retail industry. By diverting most of the small business owner’s customers to Wal-Mart, it impoverished small independent retailers and destroyed historical downtowns in small communities. In the 1980’s, the Wal-Mart sales had exceeded over a billion dollars with over three hundred stores across North America. By 1991, Wal-Mart was the largest retailer in the US with over 1700 stores. Walton remained president and CEO until 1988 and chairman until his death. Walton died in 1992 as the second richest man, behind Bill Gates. He passed his company down to his three sons, daughter and wife. Wal-Mart stores now operate in Mexico, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, South Korea, China and Puerto Rico. Sam Walton had done real well as leader because he had the intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity and the sociability traits needed to be a successful leader. His human and conceptual leadership style made him an amazing leader. His ability to be able to lead by task as well as nurture group relationships put Walton as one of the greatest leaders of all time. Walton’s commitment to maintaining positive followership just added to his unique ability to possess all the qualities needed to be a successful leader. After analyzing Sam Walton’s leadership methods, I’m able to walk away with the following advice from the man himself, Sam Walton: â€Å"Commit to your goals, share your rewards, energize your colleagues, and communicate all you know, value your associates, celebrate your success, listen to everyone, deliver more than you promise, work smarter than others and blaze your own path† (Littlerock Website). Bibliography Wal-Mart Visitors Center Wal-Mart Community Involvement http://littlerock. about. com/cs/homeliving/a/aasamwalton. htm http://walmartstores. com/AboutUs/9502. aspx http://www. davidgorman. org/articles/the-sam-walton-way. html http://www. leader-values. com/Content/detail. asp? ContentDetailID=1065 Huey, John and Sam Walton. Sam Walton: Made in America. Mass Market Paperback. New York: Bantam1993.

Saturday, March 14, 2020

A History of the Horn, Better Known as the French Horn

A History of the Horn, Better Known as the French Horn Throughout the last six centuries, the evolution of horns has gone from the most basic of instruments used for hunting and announcements to more sophisticated musical versions designed to elicit the most melodious sounds. The First Horns The history of horns starts with the use of actual animal horns, hollowed out of the marrow, and blown into to create loud sounds announcing celebrations and the start of feasts, as well as for sharing warnings, such as the approach of enemies and threats. The Hebrew shofar is a classic example of an animal horn that was, and still is, widely used in celebrations. These culturally significant rams horns are used to announce major holidays and celebrations, such as Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. However, the basic animal horn does not allow for much manipulation of sound other than what the user can do with his mouth. Rafael Ben-Ari/Getty Images Transitioning From Communication Tool to Musical Instrument Making the transition from a method of communication to a way to create music, horns were first formally seen being used as musical instruments during 16th-century operas. They were made from brass and mimicked the structure of the animal horn. Unfortunately, they provided a challenge for adjusting notes and tones. As such, horns of different lengths were introduced, and players had to switch between them throughout a performance. While this did provide some added flexibility, it wasnt an ideal solution, and horns werent widely used. During the 17th century, additional modifications to the horn were seen, including the enhancement of the bell end (larger and flared bells) of the horn. After this alteration was made, the cor de chasse, or French horn as the English called it, was born. The first horns were monotone instruments. But in 1753, a German musician called Hampel invented the means of applying movable slides (crooks) of various length that changed the key of the horn. In 1760, it was discovered rather than invented that placing a hand over the bell of the French horn lowered the tone, called stopping. Devices for stopping were later invented, which further enhanced the sound that performers could create. In the early 19th century, pistons and valves, instead of crooks, were used, giving birth to the modern French horn and eventually the double French horn. This new design allowed for an easier transition from note to note, without having to switch instruments, which meant performers could keep a smooth and uninterrupted sound. It also allowed for players to have a wider range of tones, which created more complex and harmonic sound. Despite the fact that the term French horn has been widely accepted as the proper name of this instrument, its modern design was actually developed by German builders and is most frequently manufactured in Germany. As such, many experts assert that the proper name for this instrument should simply be a horn. Who Invented the French Horn? Tracing the invention of the French horn to one person is tricky. However, two inventors are named as the first to invent a valve for the horn. According to the Brass Society, Heinrich Stoelzel (1777–1844), a member of the band of the Prince of Pless, invented a valve that he applied to the horn by July 1814 (considered the first French horn) and Friedrich Blà ¼hmel (fl. 1808–before 1845), a miner who played trumpet and horn in a band in Waldenburg, is also associated with the invention of the valve. Edmund Gumpert and Fritz Kruspe are both credited with inventing double French horns in the late 1800s. German Fritz Kruspe, who has been noted most often as the inventor of the modern double French horn, combined the pitches of the horn in F with the horn in B-flat in 1900.